b. Specimens. Culture and sensitivity (clean catch) specimens are taken to
determine specific agents in infectious diseases of kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Good
cleaning techniques are essential, especially in women. In such cases, void and collect
midstream urine in a sterile cup. The patient can be catheterized (in and out
catheterization), but this is the last resort because of increased incidence of introducing UTIs
with catheterization. Specimens must be sent to the laboratory as soon as possible and
refrigerated, if needed.
c. Additional Procedures.
(1) Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). This is a blood test to help determine
whether the kidneys are clearing the body of waste properly. The body's blood
chemistry changes if the nephrons of the kidneys are not removing the body's waste
products efficiently. One change in blood chemistry is a rise in the blood urea nitrogen
(2) Cystoscopic examination. The cystoscopic examination is a direct
method of bladder study and visualization by cystoscopy using a tubular lighted
telescopic lens that is passed into the bladder via the urethra. It is used to detect
tumors, obtain biopsies, remove calculi (kidney stones), treat lesions, and inspect
(3) X-ray procedures. X-ray procedures includes the kidney, the ureter, and
the bladder (KUB) or flat plate of the abdomen. It shows the position, size, and shape
of the kidneys and renal calculi.
Section II. KIDNEY DISEASES AND DISORDERS
Kidney disorders may be acute or chronic. Acute conditions usually arise
suddenly, most frequently as the result of an infection with inflammation of the
nephrons. Acute kidney disorders commonly run a course of a few weeks and are
followed by complete recovery. Chronic kidney conditions develop slowly. These are
often progressive, resulting in the gradual loss of kidney function.