c. Treatment of Acute Glomerulonephritis. There are two goals of treatment
of this infection: first, relief of the symptoms and second, prevention of complications.
Treatment does not require hospitalization unless oliguria, nitrogen retention, and
hypertension are present. Instead, treatment requires supportive care to include the
Bed rest. The patient can gradually resume activities as his symptoms
Fluid and dietary sodium restrictions.
(3) Correction of electrolyte imbalances (possibly dialysis, although this is
(4) Diuretics such as metolazone or furosemide; both will reduce the
extracellular fluid overload and help control pain.
An antihypertensive (an agent that reduces high blood pressure) such as
(6) Antibiotics administered as needed to prevent secondary infection or
transmission of the infection to others.
Information regarding this infection is important to know because acute
glomerulonephritis may look like one of the treatable genitourinary diseases.
Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and the tissue of the kidney
itself. This is a renal disease that may be either acute or chronic.
a. Acute Pyelonephritis. This type of pyelonephritis is fairly common. It can
be treated and, if the patient continues to be checked, there probably will not be
extensive, permanent damage of the kidneys.
(1) Etiology of acute pyelonephritis. A bacterial infection causes the
inflammation. The bacteria most commonly reach the kidney by ascending along the
lining membrane from an infection in the lower part of the urinary tract. The bacterial
infection may occur in these ways:
(a) From a congenital weakness at the junction of the bladder and the