2 Sensitization to the vaccine results in increased reactivity with
subsequent doses. For this reason, the dose for booster injections is reduced in volume
and only given intramuscularly. Boosters are only given to people residing in areas
where plague is prevalent and not more often than every six months. Once a basic
series has been given, do not give the series or a booster shot.
(e) Meningococcal. Like adenovirus, the vaccine for this disease is
given to military recruits because of their susceptibility to these respiratory illnesses
during basic training. The vaccine will be given as directed by the Surgeon General.
The vaccine is considered safe and very effective. Meningococcal vaccine for military
recruits consists of four strains: A, C, Y, and W-135. Occasionally, a dose of the
bivalent (A and C strains only) vaccine may need to be given to a pediatric patient.
Dosage for both groups is 0.5 ml once, without the need for a booster.
(3) Injection of bacterial exotoxins. In this method of providing active
artificial immunity, no organisms, living or dead, come in contact with the body. The
immunizing agent is a substance derived from a toxin for a specific disease. The toxin,
called a toxoid, has been heated and combined with formaldehyde. Toxoids are not
poisonous and act as specific antigens. After toxoids have been properly purified and
packaged under strictly sterile conditions, the toxoids are very safe immunizing agents.
Examples of toxoids as the immunizing agent are immunizations for tetanus and
diphtheria as well as the combined immunization for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.
(a) Tetanus-diphtheria toxoid. This product contains tetanus toxoid
and small amounts of diphtheria toxoid which have been shown to immunize 95 percent
of the adults after three doses. The basic series consists of three injections of 0.5 ml.
The first dose is followed in four to eight weeks by the second. One year later the third
reinforcing dose, a dose which is protective for ten years, is given. Reimmunization is
accomplished by injecting 0.1 or 0.5 ml of the tetanus-diphtheria toxoid in ten years or at
the time of an injury. If vaccination was more than six years prior to injury, 0.5 ml is
given for punctures or lacerations as a precaution. Refer to the recommendations of the
Public Health Service Advisory Committee regarding wound management guidelines for
more information. The adult tetanus/diphtheria toxoids product (Td) is used for children
over six years old. Diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine (DTP) in
combination is a pediatric product used for children from two months to six years. This
product contains a higher portion of the diphtheria toxoid component plus the pertussis
vaccine than the Td product. The product TD (without pertussis vaccine) is also
available for children if pertussis vaccine is contraindicated.