(f) Adenovirus. This is a vaccine given to military recruits due to their
susceptibility to adenovirus illnesses during basic training. Adenoviruses are viruses
(found in all parts of the world) which cause disease of the upper respiratory tract and
conjunctivae. The viruses are also present in latent infections in normal persons.
Adenovirus vaccine tablets (types 4 and 7) are available only to the military and not to
the public. One tablet of each type is administered orally within the first seven days
after arrival at basic training. The tablets do not need to be refrigerated. Each tablet
contains monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a preservative and tartrazine dye.
(g) Yellow Fever. Everyone traveling to areas in which yellow fever is
endemic must be immunized or reimmunized not less than 12 days or more than ten
years prior to arrival at their destination. The 12 day interval does not apply to travelers
to the Panama Canal Zone.
1 Vaccination against yellow fever is considered to provide almost
absolute immunity lasting at least ten years. The vaccine comes from live, attenuated
virus which is reconstituted according to the manufacturer's instructions. The package
usually contains diluent (isotonic sodium chloride) which is packed separately and which
should not be frozen. The resultant mixture is a 1:10 dilution of the concentrated
vaccine. Any vaccine remaining at the end of one hour after reconstitution should be
2 The vaccination dose for all ages is 0.5 ml given
subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Reimmunization is given every 10 years with a dose
of 0.5 ml.
(2) Injection of dead (killed) organisms. In this method of producing active
artificial immunity, the microorganisms which are to be injected have been killed or
inactivated by heat or some chemical disinfectant. Examples of immunizing agents of
this type are those used for protection against typhoid, cholera, influenza, plague, and
(a) Typhoid. Typhoid vaccine consists of Salmonella typhi which is
killed and dried with acetone to preserve its antigen capabilities. Vaccination consists of
a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of two 0.5 ml doses in the triceps area at an
interval of four to eight weeks. Revaccination is 0.5 ml in three years if authorized by
higher authority prior to military deployment. Typhoid may be administered more often if
indicated by high risk conditions. Revaccination is required only for Alert Forces and in
areas of high prevalence. Advise patients to drink water only from approved pure
sources. A 50-dose vial of freeze-dried vaccine is available only through military supply
(b) Cholera. For cholera, vaccination is of secondary value to the
necessity for sanitary measures to prevent the contamination of food and water.
Vaccination alone will not prevent cholera. Advise the person receiving the vaccination
to practice preventive measures.