(2) Thoracic vertebrae are the backbones. Pigs have 14 or 15 thoracic
vertebrae; sheep and cattle have 13.
(3) Lumbar vertebrae are the loin bones. Sheep and pigs have six or seven
lumbar vertebrae; cattle have six.
(4) Sacral vertebrae are the rump bones. Sheep and pigs have four sacral
vertebrae; cattle have five.
(5) Coccygeal (caudal) vertebrae are the tail bones. There are 16 to 18 in
sheep, 18 to 20 in cattle and 20 to 23 in pigs.
There are 13 pairs of rib bones.
The scapula is the blade bone.
The humerus is the arm bone.
The radius and ulna are known as the foreshank.
(10) The olecranon is the elbow.
(11) The femur is the round bone.
(12) The patella is the kneecap.
(13) The tibia and fibula are the hind shank.
(14) The tuber coxae is the hip bone or pin bone.
(15) The ilium, ischium, and pubis compose the pelvis (or os coxae).
c. Vertebral Formula. As a memory aid the vertebral column divisions for red
meats are expressed as the following formulas:
Cattle: C-7, T-13, L-6, S-5, CY-18 to 21.
Sheep: C-7, T-13, L-6 to 7, S-4, CY-16 to18.
Pigs: C-7, T-14 to 15, L-6 to 7, S-4, CY-20 to 23.
In the preceding paragraphs, the names of the various bones of the skeleton
were discussed. In the following paragraphs, we will relate important terms that are
related to bones and certain specific bones of the skeleton to their positions in the