Liniments do not always contain alcohol and they are not always true solutions.
However, they are frequently studied along with spirits and tinctures. Liniments are
solutions or mixtures of substances in oil, alcoholic soap solutions, or emulsions. They
are for external use only. They are generally applied with friction to increase circulation
of blood to the area. They are also used for their counterirritant and penetrating effects.
However, there are some liniments, applied without friction, which are used for their
protective, coating properties.