Cognitive involves the storing and recalling of new knowledge and
Affective learning includes changes in attitudes, values, and feelings.
Psychomotor learning has occurred when a physical skill has been
(3) Assess emotional and experiential readiness to learn. Readiness is not
the patient's physical ability to learn. The readiness to learn in an adult may be related to
a social role. Being assured that they are partners in the teaching-learning process gives
adult learners the sense of control that they are accustomed to in their daily living.
(4) Assess the patient's ability to learn. The teaching approach must be
appropriate to the developmental stage of the learner. You should assess the patient's
intellectual development, motor development, psychosocial development, and emotional
maturity. Chronological age does not guarantee maturity.
(5) Identify the patient's strengths. Learning strengths are the patient's
personal resources such as psychomotor skills, above-average comprehension,
reasoning, memory, or successful learning in the past. For example, if the patient knows
how to cook, this knowledge can be useful when learning about a special diet.
(6) Use anticipatory guidance. Anticipatory guidance focuses on
psychologically preparing a person for an unfamiliar or painful event. When patients know
what to expect, anxiety is reduced and they are able to cope more effectively.
b. Diagnose the Learning Needs. Be realistic. When a lack of knowledge,
attitude, or skill hinders a patient's self-promotion of health, the nurse diagnoses the deficit.
Confirm your diagnosis with the family. In addition, assess your own knowledge base and
teaching skills. You teach information and skills to patients which you lack.
c. Develop a Teaching Plan. Planning ensures the most efficient use of your time
and increases the patient's chances for learning. A teaching plan follows the steps of the
Develop measurable learner objectives for each diagnosis of a learning
Identify short-term and long-term objectives.
Prioritize the objectives.
(c) Determine who should be included in the teacher-learning process
(family members, friends, or other support persons). For example, the person who cooks
for the patient is asked to participate in any nutritional teaching.