d. The patient must understand the purpose, actions, and side effects of
prescribed medication (insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents).
(1) Explain the type, action, dosage, route and times of administration, and
(2) Demonstrate and discuss the proper procedures for storage and
administration of medications.
e. The patient must understand the importance of regular urine testing.
(1) Explain that the purpose of regular urine testing is to detect the presence
of glucose and/or ketones "spilled over" into the urine.
(2) Demonstrate and discuss the correct procedure for collecting and testing
a urine specimen.
(3) Explain how to interpret the test results, along with actions to be taken
for the different results.
(4) Stress the importance of documentation of the results and actions taken.
Encourage good record keeping.
f. The patient must be made aware of the complication of diabetic neuropathy.
(1) Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that causes impaired
sensation in the extremities, especially the feet.
(2) Damaged nerves lose their ability to adequately conduct impulses.
Because of this, the diabetic may not feel an injury.
(3) Instruct the patient to be cautious due to the decreased sensation.
Emphasize the following:
(a) Wear only well fitted shoes.
(b) Never walk bare-footed.
(c) Do not use heating pads or hot-water bottles. The patient could
sustain a heat injury due to decreased sensation.
g. The patient must be made aware of the complication of peripheral vascular
(1) Another common complication of diabetes, PVD causes impaired
circulation, which results in decreased oxygen perfusion to body tissues.