(4) When solutions are changed, remove and clean screen in bottom of
replenisher tanks. Swirl the screen through solution to remove trapped air bubbles.
When changing solutions, drain tanks and flush thoroughly before
(6) At least once a month, flush replenisher systems with hot water--not
over 150F. Give special attention to check valves and flow meters, which should be
removed and disassembled during cleaning.
depend upon the cleanliness of the water supply.
c. Lubrication. Lubricate the processor in accordance with the manufacturer's
Section II. MANUAL FILM PROCESSING
This section will discuss the techniques of applied chemistry used by the x-ray
specialist in manual processing of x-ray films. Although most hospitals now use
automatic processors, there may be times when knowledge of manual processing
procedures is required.
3-13. MIXING SOLUTIONS
Processing chemicals are compounded according to precise formulas--the
correct amount of such chemical is mixed together so that by merely adding water, the
correct solutions may be obtained. The x-ray specialist need only read the instructions
on the package and mix the bulk chemicals accordingly. These instructions must be
read and followed exactly so that a properly functioning solution is obtained. Be sure to
read the label! The first step in the processing procedure is the proper preparation of
the processing solution. When mixing the chemicals to be made into solutions, the
manufacturer's directions should always be carefully followed. There are, however,
some general recommendations for making up solutions.
3-14. IMPORTANCE OF CLEANLINESS
Processing of radiographs involves chemical reactions of various solutions on the
film, the success of the reaction depending upon the purity of the solutions. Cleanliness
and care in the preparation and use of the solutions is of paramount importance. The
processing room, as well as the accessories and equipment, must be kept scrupulously
clean and used only for the purpose intended. Spilled solutions should be wiped up at
once from surfaces, which may result in artifacts on the radiographs. When mixing dry