(1) The assistance of one or more persons other than radiological personnel
may be enlisted to aid in immobilizing the patient according to the demands of the
(2) A strap made of clean cotton webbing, 2 inches wide and about 2 1/2 to
3 feet in length, should be provided for immobilization of the skull in the lateral position.
When this is needed, an assistant holds the strap tautly across the frontal and parietal
areas with the head turned to be lateral position. If such a strap is not available, a
suitably folded hand towel can be used.
(3) A pair of large-sized synthetic rubber sponges held firmly against the
sides of the patient's head may be of considerable help in obtaining AP or PA
projections of the skull with the least likelihood of the assistant's hands being
superimposed on the image.
(4) A suitable modification of the Sayre apparatus ("head sling") may be
used to considerable advantage for radiography of the head or neck with the patient in
the upright position.
(5) In certain cases, it may be helpful to snugly wrap the patient's body
(from the shoulders down with the arms alongside the body) in a suitable sheet. This
procedure is often referred to as "mummification."
(1) Lead-impregnated aprons, gloves, and protective shielding must be
provided for protection against irradiation for persons assisting in the immobilization of
the patient during exposure. The area of irradiation should be confined to the most
practicable limits by the proper use of cones, cylinders, diaphragms, or collimators.
Under no circumstances should an x-ray specialist hold a patient during exposure.
Gonads should be protected with lead shields when practicable.
(2) Under no circumstances should the patient be left unattended for any
length of time while on the x-ray table or in a crib with the guard railing down. The
danger of the child falling off the table or out of the crib is very great.
(3) Loose articles that can be swallowed, such as diaper pins or
identification materials, should be kept out of reach of the child at all times.
(4) If the patient is being held in an immobile position by an assistant, the
x-ray specialist should not make the exposure until he has made sure that the
assistant's hands are not interposed over any area of the patient in line with the path of
the exposing x-ray beam.