SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON 10
Endocrine glands are glands of internal secretion. These glands are also called
ductless glands. Hormones are the secretions produced by endocrine glands.
Target organs are the specific organs or tissues to which hormones are carried by
the bloodstream. This is a feedback mechanism because the activity of the target
organ affects the activity of the endocrine organ. (para 10-1)
The fundamental control "system" is the interaction of heredity and environment.
Genes determine the range of potentiality. Environment develops it. Controlling
the tissues and organs in general are the hormones of the endocrine system.
Providing more precise and immediate control of the body structures is the
Endocrine organs are richly supplied with blood vessels because hormones must
be carried to their target organs by the bloodstream. (para 10-2b)
Suprarenal (adrenal) glands.
The pituitary body is a small pea-sized and pea-shaped structure. It is attached to
the base of the brain in the region of the hypothalamus. In addition, it is housed
within a hollow of the bony floor of the cranial cavity. The pituitary body is actually
two glands: the posterior pituitary gland and the anterior pituitary gland.
The posterior pituitary gland is that portion of the pituitary body which comes from
and retains its connection with the base of the brain.
The hormones of the
posterior pituitary gland are actually produced in the hypothalamus of the brain.
The two recognized hormones of the posterior pituitary gland are ADH (antidiuretic
hormone) and oxytocin. The first is involved with the resorption or salvaging of
water within the kidneys; it is produced under thirst conditions. The second is
concerned with contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus and with milk