2-15. ABNORMALITIES OF FRESH DAIRY PRODUCTS
a. Off-Flavors. Examples of off-flavors to look for are: feed or weed
(unnaturally sweet and aromatic), rancid (bitter or soapy), metallic (cardboardy),
unclean (barny or cowy), malty or high acid (grapenut-like or sour), winey/fruity, salty,
bitter, musty, yeasty, and/or cooked.
b. Texture and Body Defects of Fluid Dairy Products. Examples of texture
and body defects to look for are: sweet curd (small, coagulated particles floating on the
surface), chalky texture, ropiness (having a ropy body and long threads of slime),
layering, stratification, and sedimentation of chocolate and milk components in
chocolate milk and drink, feathering of cream (coagulation of cream forming small
c. Texture and Body Defects of Cultured Dairy Products. When examining
cultured dairy products, the veterinary food inspection specialist should look for layers of
watery liquid, matted curd, free whey, rubbery consistency (too firm), gelatinous
consistency, and/or air pockets.
2-16. ABNORMALITIES OF ICE CREAM
a. Off-Flavors. Most off-flavors in ice cream are due to the use of milk or milk
products containing off-flavors. Off-flavors include metallic, rancid cream, cooked, and
bitter. Other undesirable flavors may occur because too much or too little of an
ingredient or flavor has been used.
b. Texture Defects. The texture of ice cream should be smooth. Example of
texture defects include:
(1) Large ice crystals. This is the most common texture defect and it is
caused by slow freezing, thawing and refreezing, or poor homogenization.
(2) Snowy or flaky. This defect is the result of high over-run in a mix of low
solids, low stabilizer, freezing too soft in the freezing machines, or improper whipping.
(3) Sandy. This defect is caused by the presence of lactose crystals in the
(4) Buttery. This condition occurs when the ice cream con-
tains lumps of butterfat of such size that they can be detected in the mouth. This
buttery texture is caused by churning that has taken place during freezing and can be
prevented by proper homogenization.
c. Body and Melting Defects. Body defects refer to the whole structure of ice
cream and is largely influenced by the composition of the mix, whereas texture refers to