the makeup of the individual particles that form the body of the ice cream. Common
body and melting behavior defects include:
(1) Crumbly and brittle. This defect can best be detected by noting the
curled up or rough appearance as the edge of a spoon is drawn over the surface of the
ice cream. It is caused by a combination of high overrun, coarse air cells, low gelatin
content, low solids content, and/or poor homogenization.
(2) Heavy or soggy. This defect is caused by low overrun and high total
solids. The higher the solids content, the higher must be the overrun to avoid this
defect. The ice cream melts slowly.
(3) Gummy. Gumminess is caused mainly by too much stabilizer (especially
gelatin) in the mix. A gummy ice cream has a pasty, elastic body with high melting
(4) Weak and watery. Weak and watery ice cream is the opposite of a
gummy, pasty body and is invariably accompanied by a rapid melting to a water
consistency. It has a low melting resistance. This condition is caused by low total
solids and a low stabilizer content.
(5) Foamy. The use of too much egg product or gelatin will cause ice cream
to be foamy.
(6) Curdled. A curdled condition is caused by aggregation or coagulation of
the milk proteins. Ice cream with this defect has a dull, finely wrinkled surface when
d. Color. If the color is too high or if there is a lack of color, the finished product
may be objectionable. When coloring is added to represent the shades of various fruits,
it should appear "natural" and evenly distributed.
e. Loss of Volume (Shrinkage). This condition involves the loss of air and a
decrease in volume of the product. Some common causes of shrinkage are excessive
overrun, insufficient solids, storage at high temperatures, transfer of ice cream from one
container to another, and barometric pressure.
2-17. ABNORMALITIES OF MANUFACTURED DAIRY PRODUCTS
a. Off-Flavors. Manufactured Dairy Products have off-flavors similar to those
found in fresh dairy products. Some of these off-flavors are: feed or weed, rancid,
metallic, aged, unclean, malty or high acid, sour, winey/fruity, salty, bitter, musty,
yeasty, and/or cooked.
b. Defects of Butter. Body characteristics that detract from the quality of butter
include: crumbly (fat particles lack cohesion and do not stick together), gummy (butter