Chloroprocaine (Nesacaine, Nesacaine-C).
(1) Clinical uses. Chloroprocaine is pharmacologically similar to procaine.
Chloroprocaine is used for infiltration, nerve block, caudal, and epidural anesthesia.
Forms available. Chloroprocaine is available in injection form.
(1) Clinical uses. Tetracaine is used for topical, nerve block, infiltration,
spinal, and caudal anesthesia. Its onset of action is 15 minutes.
(2) Forms available. Pontocaine is available in injection, cream, ointment,
and injectable forms.
Proparacaine (Alcaine, Ophthetic).
(1) Clinical uses. Proparacaine is used primarily to produce anesthesia
when applied to the eye. It has a rapid onset of action (20 seconds) and its duration of
action is approximately 15 minutes.
Forms available. Proparacaine is supplied in solution form.
(1) Clinical uses. Bezocaine is used for topical anesthesia of the mucous
membranes and skin. It is used in many over-the-counter spray preparations for the
treatment of sunburn and itching.
Forms available. Benzocaine is available in solution, ointment, and
(1) Clinical uses. Cocaine is applied to produce local anesthesia with
intensive vasoconstriction on mucous membranes. It is applied to procedure
anesthesia in the nose, throat, ear, and in bronchoscopy (a procedure in which an
instrument is used to inspect the bronchi).
(2) Forms available. Cocaine is supplied in the form of a white powder.
Cocaine solution must be compounded. It is a Schedule II controlled substance.