e. How Supplied. The 25 percent solution is supplied in vacuum-sealed cans
containing 100 ml of the drug in an infusion bottle, with the equipment for sterile
intravenous infusion. The 5 percent solution is provided in 500-ml bottles, also with an
intravenous injection set.
4-17. PLASMA PROTEIN FRACTION
a. Action and Uses. Plasma protein fraction, derived from human donor
plasma, is a 5 percent solution of plasma proteins, mainly albumin, but excluding
certain unstable globulins. Its use and effects are very similar to normal human serum
albumin, discussed above. It is used for a plasma substitute in treating shock and as a
source of protein for intravenous feeding. Of course, it contains no clotting factors.
b. Administration. The usual minimum dose is 250-500 ml by IV infusion, not
exceeding 8 ml per minute. Continued administration is dependent on the client's
response to therapy.
c. Cautions. The period of potency is 60 months when stored at a temperature
not exceeding 30C (86F).
d. How Supplied. Plasma protein fraction is supplied as a 5 percent solution in
250-ml and 500-ml bottles, with an intravenous injection set.
4-18. DEXTROSE SOLUTIONS
a. Actions and Uses. Dextrose (glucose), often 5 percent in water, is given to
correct nutritional and water deficiency when the oral route cannot be used. Five-
percent solutions of dextrose have nearly the same osmotic pressure as the body
fluids. In addition to their use in the treatment of dehydration, five-percent dextrose
solutions in saline (dextrose and sodium chloride injection, dextrose in lactated
Ringer's injection, or dextrose in Ringer's injection) may be used in the emergency
treatment of hypovolemic shock until preferred fluids are available. A 50-percent
dextrose injection acts as a diuretic and is used in the relief of edema.
b. Administration. Dextrose solutions are most commonly given by
intravenous infusion. Rarely, they may be given orally or rectally. One to three liters of
a 10-percent solution (about 400 calories) are usually given for nutritional deficiency.
One to two liters of a 5 percent solution in saline is usually used as a plasma expander.
Fifty to 100-ml of a 50 percent solution are usually given to produce a diuretic effect.
c. Untoward Effects. Too much dextrose solution with sodium chloride can
cause edema. Too much dextrose solution without sodium chloride can cause a
clumping of the red blood cells.
d. Cautions and Contraindications. Dextrose solutions should be kept from
freezing. They should not be used if there is sediment in the bottle. Use cautiously in