diabetics. A client receiving dextrose solutions by intravenous infusion should be
observed for signs of edema. Puffing of the hands and feet indicates that the client is
becoming edematous. In addition, the infusion site should be observed for infiltration of
the solution into the tissues, as indicated by swelling of the tissues around the needle.
Should infiltration occur, the infusion should be discontinued and restarted at a new
e. How Supplied.
(1) Dextrose and sodium chloride (NaC1) injection. Various preparations
are available: 0.5 percent dextrose in 0.45 percent NaC1; five-percent dextrose in 0.2-
percent, 0.33 percent, 0.45-percent, or 0.9-percent NaC1; and 10-percent dextrose in
0.9-percent NaC1. Most of the preparations are available in transparent, flexible
plastic, single-dose containers. The most frequently used preparations contain five-
percent dextrose in 0.9-percent NaC1, available in 250-ml, 500-ml, and 100-ml bags. A
solution of 2.5-percent dextrose in 0.45 percent NaC1 is supplied in 250-ml bags for
(2) Dextrose and sodium chloride injection, modified. This solution contains
five-percent dextrose in 0.9-percent NaC1. It is supplied in a 1000-ml transparent,
flexible plastic, single-dose container with graduation intervals at each 100-ml. An
infusion set and swab-type antiseptic ampule are included in the carton, which converts
to an arm board.
(3) Dextrose in lactated Ringer's injection. This five-percent dextrose
solution is supplied in 500-ml and 1000-ml flexible plastic containers.
(4) Dextrose in Ringer's injection. This five-percent dextrose solution is
supplied in 500-ml and 1000-ml flexible plastic containers.
(5) Dextrose injection, modified. This five-percent dextrose solution is
supplied in 1000-ml flexible plastic containers similar to that for dextrose and sodium
chloride injection, modified (see (2) above).
(6) Dextrose injection. Dextrose injection is available in five percent, 10
percent, and 50 percent strengths in various types and sizes of containers.
4-19. SODIUM CHLORIDE INJECTION
a. Action and Uses. Sodium chloride injection (normal saline solution;
physiological salt solution) is a 0.9-percent solution of sodium chloride, which gives it
the same osmotic pressure (makes it isotonic with) as the body fluids. This preparation
is of great value in the treatment of dehydration, which is frequently associated with
shock. Also, it will replenish body salt (electrolyte) loss. Since it passes out of the
circulatory system very quickly, it is only briefly effective as a volume replacement fluid