c. How Supplied. Lactated Ringer's injection is supplied in 1000-ml
transparent, flexible plastic, single-dose containers.
4-22. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE INJECTION
a. Action and Uses. Potassium chloride injection is used to treat hypokalemia,
a deficiency of potassium in the blood. Hypokalemia may result from prolonged
vomiting or diarrhea, treatment with adrenal steroids or diuretics (especially the
thiazides), and kidney tubule malfunction.
b. Administration. It is important to confirm adequate renal function when
administering potassium, since the kidney is the principle route of excretion. Except in
an emergency in which serum K is extremely low and cardiac and respiratory muscle
activity is seriously impaired, the rate of administration should be 10-20-mEq per hour,
or less. A total dose of 1-3 mEq/kg/24 hours may be given in glucose or saline
c. Effects of Overdose. The symptoms of overdose include paresthesias
(abnormal sensations), general weakness or paralysis, mental confusion, hypotension,
cardiac arrhythmias, and heart block.
d. How Supplied. Potassium chloride injection is supplied in 10-ml ampules.
Each milliliter contains two milliequivalents of potassium ion.
4-23. SODIUM BICARBONATE INJECTION
a. Action and Uses. Sodium bicarbonate is specific in the treatment of
systemic acidosis, since the salt is composed of the two ions essential to correct this
condition. Large quantities of sodium bicarbonate are needed only in unusual and
b. Administration. It is difficult to set a general dosage schedule for sodium
bicarbonate in the treatment of metabolic acidosis. In chronic, stable conditions, it is
possible to begin with very small doses and find the correct dose empirically. The drug
is usually administered in 5 percent dextrose in water in concentrations from 44 to 176-
c. Precautions. An overdose may result in systemic alkalosis. Clients with
renal failure may demonstrate circulatory failure or tetany during alkali therapy.
d. How Supplied. Sodium bicarbonate injection is supplied in 50-ml ampules.
Each ampule contains 44.6-milliequivalents of sodium.