Figure 5-10. Life cycle of the sand fly.
c. Control Methods. Sand flies are very sensitive to residual insecticides. In
areas where there has been extensive residual spraying against mosquitoes for the
control of malaria, sand flies will probably have been eliminated. Their habit of
frequenting only the lower floor of buildings can sometimes be used to advantage by
moving personnel to upper floor levels. Insect repellents also give protection against
attacks by these pests.
5-19. BLACK FLIES
Black flies (figure 5-11) are also called buffalo gnats. They are one to five
millimeters in length and are particularly abundant in the north temperate and subarctic
zones. They often appear in great swarms during the late spring and early summer in
hilly sections where swiftly flowing streams provide well-aerated water for larval
Figure 5-11. Adult black fly.