a. Life Cycle. Black flies pass through the stages of egg, larva, pupa, and adult
in their life cycle.
b. Diseases. The bite of a black fly results in extreme pain, intense itching, and
local swelling with occasional severe complications. The most important disease
transmitted by black flies is onchocerciasis (river blindness). Animals often die from the
bites of these flies.
c. Control Methods.
(1) Control of breeding sites. The control of black flies is aimed at the
control of breeding sites through sanitation and by spraying with an approved residual
(2) Control of adult black flies. Although black flies are larger than sand
flies, they are small enough to enter ordinary 18-mesh screen. Painting the screens
with a residual insecticide usually keeps black flies out. All of the insecticides used to
control mosquitoes will also control black flies. Application of insect repellent (DEET) to
the exposed skin will repel black flies for several hours.
5-20. KISSING BUGS
Reduviid ("kissing") bugs (figure 5-12) transmit Chagas' disease. This disease
has a high mortality rate in Central and South America, especially in Brazil and
Argentina. These insects transmit the disease from animals such as armadillos, cats,
bats, foxes, and guinea pigs to man.
Figure 5-12. Kissing bugs. A Top view. B Side view.