b. Treatment of Infected Areas.
(1) In the treatment of areas infested with fleas and flea larvae (such as
rodent nests, burrows, and runways and places where other animals rest), an approved
insecticide dust should be applied with a head duster. Should a plague epidemic occur,
the dusting operations to kill the fleas must always be accomplished before the rat-
poisoning operations (paragraph 5-24) are started; otherwise, the fleas will leave the
dead rodents and attack humans.
(2) When rats or other flea-infested animals enter buildings, the fleas may
leave the host and infest the cracks and crevices in the floors. These fleas may deposit
eggs that hatch into larvae that continue to live and develop in the cracks and crevices
of the floor. Good cleaning practices will do much to eliminate or prevent such
infestations. If necessary, insecticide dust or spray should be applied.
c. Individual Protective Measures. In flea-infested areas, clothing--particularly
the trouser legs--should be impregnated with insect repellent. If insect repellent is not
available, lindane dust should be applied to the boots, socks, and lower parts of the
trouser legs. Insect repellent (DEET) should also be applied to the hands and other
exposed portions of the body. The sleeves should be kept rolled down and the trouser
legs should be kept tucked into the boots.
Section VI. MISCELLANEOUS ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES
Houseflies are found all over the world, but they are most abundant in warm
climates. Houseflies, which comprise the majority of all flies found around field dining
facilities, are the most important of the nonbiting species in the transmission of
a. Fly-Borne Diseases. The medical history of past wars indicates that the
health of troops has been seriously affected by flies. They carry the organisms that
cause dysentery and may carry those which cause cholera, typhoid, and other
diseases. In the Tropics, various skin and eye diseases are spread by flies.
b. Method of Disease Transmission. Flies transmit disease organisms on the
tiny hairs of their bodies and feet and in their feces and vomitus. They may bring the
disease organisms directly from manure, garbage, and human feces to food and water.
c. Life Cycle. The common housefly goes through four stages during the life
cycle--egg, larva (maggot), pupa, and adult (figure 5-9). Houseflies breed in manure,
human waste, and decaying vegetable or other organic matter.