closed for 30 to 60 minutes after spraying. In dining facilities, spray at the rate of five
seconds per 1,000 cubic feet. Spraying should be done 30 minutes to one hour before
serving a meal. This spray does not have sufficient strength to deposit an effective
residue to toxic materials; it should never be applied as a residual spray.
(b) Residual spray. An approved residual insecticide may be used as
a residual spray for the control of adult flies. Ordinarily, flies must be exposed to this
residue for one-half to four hours before they die. Apply the spray to areas where flies
usually rest (ceilings, corners, table legs, and fixtures inside billets and messes) and to
outside doors, screens, and porches. Since fly larvae are usually below the surface of
breeding media, it is difficult to reach them with chemicals. The most effective way to
control fly larvae is to destroy or remove the material in which they are breeding.
(c) Fly baits. Houseflies that have developed resistance to standard
insecticides can be controlled by using bait containing an organic phosphorous
insecticide. Since some of the organic phosphorous insecticides are highly toxic to
humans, only approved formulations are to be used. The bait, which usually consists of
cornmeal or sugar and malathion, is prepared by trained personnel and furnished to the
unit. It is sprinkled at the rate of an ounce per 300 square feet at locations where flies
(4) Swatting. Swatting is an excellent method of destroying flies that have
entered a screened facility. If the shades are drawn on most of the windows, flies will
congregate near the light of the unshaded windows where they can be swatted quickly.
No dining facility or kitchen should be without several conveniently placed fly swatters.
5-18. SAND FLIES
Sand flies are hairy gnats. They resemble small mosquitoes; but their short,
hopping flights are unlike those of mosquitoes. Sand flies are uncommon in most parts
of the US but are common in South America, Africa, Asia, and many other warm parts
of the world.
a. Life Cycle. Sand flies pass through the stages of egg, larva, pupa, and adult
in their life cycle (figure 5-10). They breed in damp dark places--caves, crevices, stone
embankments, crumbling ruins, earth fissures, and stony rubble.
b. Diseases. Sand flies transmit sand fly fever, a disease present in the coastal
regions of the Mediterranean, South China, India, and Ceylon. They may also transmit
a form of Oriental sore known as leishmaniasis. The bites of sand flies are painful and
may result in marked irritation.