a. Etiology of Hydronephrosis. The most common causes include the
An enlarged prostate.
Kidney stones that have formed in the pelvis and dropped into the
A tumor that presses on a ureter.
Scars caused by inflammation.
b. Signs and Symptoms of Hydronephrosis. Signs and symptoms vary with
the cause of the obstruction. Some patients experience no symptoms or slightly
decreased urine output and mild pain.
(1) Severe signs and symptoms. Patients experiencing severe signs and
symptoms may experience:
(a) Severe, colicky renal pain or dull, flank pain radiating to the groin.
(b) Gross urinary abnormalities such as hematuria, pyuria, dysuria,
alternating oliguria and polyuria, or complete anuria.
1 Hematuria - discharge of red blood cells in the urine.
2 Pyuria - pus in the urine.
3 Dysuria - difficulty or pain in urination.
4 Oliguria - abnormally low excretion of urine.
5 Polyuria - abnormally large excretion of urine.
6 Complete anuria - no urine is excreted.
Additional signs/symptoms. Included are: