b. Waiting Period. An anaphylactic tray containing the necessary drugs should
be available in the immunization area. Patients should be instructed to wait in the
immediate area for 30 minutes following an injection to guard against a possible allergic
c. Check Expiration Date. The expiration date of all biological products should
be checked before each use. Biologicals requiring reconstitution should be used
immediately after introduction of the diluent. All suspensions should be well shaken to
ensure even distribution of organisms within the suspension. All biologicals should be
stored properly when not in use.
d. Prevention of Secondary Infections. All injections should be administered
following standard aseptic techniques to prevent secondary infections.
e. Precautions. Individuals with a defective or altered immune mechanism
should not be given a live virus vaccine. Additionally, individuals with acute febrile
illness and pregnant women should NEVER receive a live virus vaccine.
a. Inactivated (Killed) Vaccines.
(1) These suspensions consist of suspensions of killed whole bacteria.
These vaccines are most often used to protect those who travel outside the United
Examples of these agents include plague, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax
b. Bacterial Live Vaccines.
(1) These consist of suspensions of live attenuated bacteria that are proven
to produce infection, but only in a mild self-limiting form. Thus, a mild planned infection
is substituted for an unpredictable, possibly severe one. The most effective vaccines for
the induction of active immunity are in this category.
(2) Examples of bacterial live vaccines include plague (also available as an
inactivated bacterial virus) and tuberculosis.
(3)The protection provided by all bacterial vaccines, live or inactivated, is