5-11. IMMUNE SERUM GLOBULINS
a. These agents are employed to lessen the symptoms of infectious disease or
to provide prophylaxis against communicable disease in endemic areas. They are
prepared from the blood of humans that have recovered from known attacks of the
disease or have been immunized against the disease with large doses of toxoids.
These agents produce passive immunity.
b. Tetanus immune globulin is a sterile solution of globulins obtained from the
plasma of adults hyperimmunized with tetanus toxoid. It is an effective prophylactic
agent in patients with wounds potentially contaminated with Clostridium tetani.
c. Immune serum globulin consists primarily of IgG antibodies and represents
the gamma globulin fraction of normal human plasma. It is used to prevent infections
such as hepatitis or measles in exposed, susceptible individuals. This product should
be stored under normal refrigeration.
d. Rabies immune globulin consists of antibodies from the serum of individuals
repeatedly vaccinated against rabies.
These agents are prepared by injecting animal sources with purified toxin or
toxoid and extracting and processing the blood. Antitoxins are used with caution
because of their high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions from equine sources.
Some examples of these agents are tetanus antitoxin (equine), botulism antitoxin
(equine), and diphtheria antitoxin (equine). Antitoxins also produce passive immunity.
5-13. ANTIVENIN (CROTALIDAE) POLYVALENT
a. This agent is a sterile preparation derived by drying a frozen solution of
specific venom-neutralizing substances obtained from the serum of healthy horses
immunized against venom of four species of pit vipers.
b. The smaller the patient, the larger the initial dose that is required. The
amount of antivenom that can be administered is virtually unlimited. This provides