a. These vaccines are comprised of killed or live attenuated organisms which
are derived from culture medium containing living cells such as embryonated eggs,
rabbit brain tissue, or monkey kidney tissue. These agents are used to develop active
b. Smallpox vaccine consists of live attenuated virus derived from calf lymph. In
the Army, it is available as a freeze-dried powder for reconstitution. A successful
vaccination produces a limited cutaneous infection with minimal systemic involvement.
c. Oral polio (Sabin) vaccine contains live attenuated poliovirus grown in
monkey-kidney-tissue culture or human cell culture. This vaccine is the agent of choice
against polio because of its ease of administration, and it produces immunity resembling
that induced by natural poliovirus infection. It is available in both monovalent and
trivalent form. This vaccine should be stored in a freezer (-9 to -14C).
d. Rabies vaccine is prepared from fixed rabies virus in human diploid
embryonic cell cultures. It is the agent of choice for post-exposure prophylaxis for
rabies and indicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis for high-risk individuals. Prophylaxis
against rabies in persons exposed to rabies through animal contacts includes both
passive immunization with rabies immune globulin to provide immediate protection and
active immunization to stimulate endogenous rabies antibody formation. The dried
vaccine should be stored in a refrigerator (2-8C) and reconstituted with the
accompanying diluent prior to use.
e. Live attenuated virus grown in embryonated chicken eggs and dispensed in
lyophilized form makes up Yellow Fever vaccine. It produces an asymptomatic infection
and solid immunity to natural infection and disease for 10 years or more.
f. Rubella vaccine is available as a lyophilized powder that must be stored
under normal refrigeration (2 to 8C) and reconstituted with a special diluent. It is used
in children between 1 year of age and puberty and in women of childbearing age who
have not demonstrated adequate antibody protection. These women must agree to
take measures to prevent pregnancy for 3 months following the administration of the
vaccine; birth defects can occur as a result of receiving the Rubella vaccine during the
first few months of pregnancy.
g. Mumps vaccine is a live viral vaccine which provides protection which may
last up to 10 years. Immunization against mumps is indicated in children 15 months of
age or older and adults (based on individual evaluation of patient needs). The vaccine
should be stored in a refrigerator (2 to 8C) and reconstituted with the accompanying
diluent prior to use; it must be used within 8 hours of reconstitution.