h. Measles vaccine is a live attenuated virus vaccine. It produces a modified
infection in susceptible individuals; it should not be used by individuals with egg
allergies. Rubeola vaccine should be stored under normal refrigeration; the lyophilized
powder must be reconstituted before use and used within 8 hours.
i. Various strains of influenza vaccine, usually mixed, are freshly prepared each
year. It appears that the immunity offered by these vaccines does not exceed 4
months. The vaccines are prepared in ten-day incubated, embryonated chicken eggs,
give artificial active immunity, and must be stored under normal refrigeration.
j. Viral vaccines in combination are available for simultaneous immunization
against more than one disease. Two common agents are the mumps and rubella
vaccine and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Information concerning
the individual vaccines applies to combination products.
a. Among the most deadly of man's enemies are the toxins. Seven ounces of
pure crystalline botulinus toxin would kill every human now on the face of the earth. A
major source of this toxin is improperly prepared home canned vegetables, especially
b. The toxoids are prepared from the exotoxins of bacteria by treating with
formaldehyde and then purifying them. This results in a material that has lost its toxic
properties but maintains the antigenic specificity of the active toxin. Toxoids produce
artificial active immunity.
c. Tetanus toxoid is used to immunize individuals against the possibility of
tetanus, is highly effective, and produces an immunity that lasts for 10 years or more.
Additional boosters are administered following injuries where the tetanus bacterium may
d. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (pediatric type) is used for primary
immunization and booster injections in children up to 6 years of age. This agent is used
when pertussis vaccine must be given separately or is omitted. Diphtheria and tetanus
toxoid, adsorbed (adult type), is used for primary immunization and booster injections in
adults and children over 6 years of age. The adult type is 1/10 the strength of the
e. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DPT) is a combination product
recommended for the primary immunization and booster injections of all children under
6 years of age. This biological is NOT recommended for children over 6 years of age or