Related diseases include rheumatoid arth____s, systemic l__s erythematosus,
Sjogren's syn__e, progressive systemic scl____s, and mixed c___ve tissue
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by
inflammatory changes in j___s and related structures that result in crippling
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic i___y disease of connective
tissue that affects the s__n, j__s, k__s, n__s system, and m_s membranes. A
characteristic light-induced b__fly rash or erythema may be present across the
n_e. The disease may be a_e or chronic. Symptoms from any o_n system may
be present. The disease occurs most often in w__n.
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a benign c_c disease characterized by a lack of t__s
and d_ness of the eyes and mouth with little or no s_a. It often occurs secondary
to RA or one of the other c__e tissue disorders. The disease occurs most often in
Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a (acute) (chronic) illness characterized
by a fibrous t_ing of the skin and several internal o__s. Two-thirds of the patients
are (male) (female).
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a recently defined syndrome whose
designation is reserved for patients with c___d clinical features of RA, SLE, and
Of the antinuclear antibodies discussed in this lesson, the ones strongly
associated with SLE are anti-n___e-DNA, anti-D_, and anti-S_.
High titers of anti-R__ are found in all patients with MCTD. Low titers may be
seen in SLE.
High titers of antinucleolar antibodies are highly indicative of P__.
The fluorescent antin___r antibody test (FANA) utilizes the indirect f__t antibody
technique. Antinuclear a__s in a patient's serum will bind with nuc__r antigens of
a tissue c__l c__e substrate affixed to a slide. Fluorescein-conj___d antihuman
globulin interacts with n___r antibodies attached to the cell nuclei in a positive
assay which is indicated by an apple-green f______ce.