The component parts of the two types of microscopes include the light system and
the filter system.
The light system includes the light reflector, the light source, and the collecting
lenses. The filter system includes the heat-absorbing filter, the exciter filter, the
dichroic mirror, and the barrier filter.
The light reflector is a concave mirror located behind the light source which
redirects lost energy (light) back into system. The light source is a mercury vapor
lamp. The collecting lenses concentrate light from the light source into a single
The heat-absorbing filter removes excess heat from the exciting light that may
damage the system. The exciter filter (primary filter) transmits only the effective
light and suppresses all other energy from light source emission which are not
required for specimen fluorescence. The dichroic mirror, which is part of the
incident microscope only, allows passage of light of selected wave lengths in one
direction through the mirror but not in the opposite direction. The barrier filter
transmits only the emitted fluorescent light from the specimen and suppresses all
Antinuclear antibodies are a collection of autoantibodies which are directed
against nuclear constituents, usually in nucleoprotein, and which are present in
various autoimmune diseases. The detection of one or more of these antinuclear
antibodies is pathologically significant.