a. Principle. Semen analysis involves gross examination (volume, color,
turbidity, viscosity, and pH) and microscopic examination (motility and spermatozoa
b. Reagent. Spermatozoa Fixative Solution: Add 5 grams sodium bicarbonate
(NaHCO3) and 1 ml of formalin to a 100 ml volumetric flask. Dilute to the mark with
c. Collection Instructions. A physician will usually give the instructions;
however, the patient should be reminded of several critical points.
(1) The patient may be required to abstain from intercourse for a period
directed by the physician.
(2) The specimen is collected in a clean container that has been pre-
warmed to body temperature.
The specimen should be delivered to the laboratory within 30 minutes.
(4) The specimen must be kept at body temperature (37oC) and not
subjected to extremes of heat or cold.
d. Gross Examination.
Record. the time of collection and receipt of the specimen.
Measure and record the volume.
(3) Observe and record the color (white, gray, yellow, and so forth), turbidity
(clear, opalescent, opaque, and so forth), and viscosity (viscid, gelatin, liquid).
Determine the pH with a pH reagent strip and record this.
e. Motility Examination.
(1) When the specimen becomes fluid (within 15 to 30 minutes after
collection, the semen liquifies by the action of fibrinolysin), place 1 drop on a slide (pre-
warmed to 37oC) and place a cover slip on it.
(2) Under high dry power, count motile and nonmotile spermatozoa in two or
more areas until a total of at least 200 spermatozoa have been observed. It is
necessary to focus through the entire depth of a given field so as to include nonmotile
spermatozoa that may have settled to the bottom of the slide. Only those that move
forward actively are considered motile. Record the percent of motile spermatozoa seen.