Nausea and vomiting.
d. Nursing implications.
(1) Dietary modifications that decrease fat consumption are used to prevent
attacks. (Fatty foods are likely to precipitate an attack.)
(2) Surgery (usually cholecystectomy) is the treatment of choice. Nursing
care will therefore focus on postoperative care and observation.
Section VIII. DIABETES
a. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which the body loses its ability to
properly oxidize carbohydrates. It is caused by a deficiency in the production of insulin
by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the Islets of
Langerhans within the pancreas.
b. The body gets its supply of energy from glucose, a product of carbohydrate
metabolism. Normally, glucose is stored in the liver, in the form of glycogen, and
released into the blood stream when the level of glucose in the circulating blood
c. Insulin regulates glucose metabolism. Without insulin, blood glucose cannot
pass through the capillary membrane to be used by the cells for energy, nor can it be
stored by the body. When the body's cells are unable to use glucose, it accumulates in
the blood (hyperglycemia) and spills over into the urine (glycosuria). When the body
cannot store glucose for release when required, blood glucose deficiency
(hypoglycemia) will occur.
Diabetes mellitus is categorized according to the type of diabetes and the
intensity of the carbohydrate intolerance.
a. Type I: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
(1) Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) is characterized by onset in
youth (age 20 or younger), although it may occur at any age. Insulin Dependent
Diabetes Mellitus has previously been referred to as "juvenile diabetes."