(6) The patient is permitted to take water only during the duration of the test.
This is done to make the patient more comfortable and to facilitate voiding for the urine
d. Urinalysis. Urine tests are used to detect the presence of glucose or
acetone in the urine. Normally, urine contains no sugar or acetone. When excess
sugar accumulates in the blood, it "spills over" into the urine during filtration of the blood
by the kidneys. Urine must be tested for sugar and acetone on a regular schedule.
This is normally done IAW ward SOP or the physician's orders. Common times are
prior to each meal and at bedtime.
(1) Urine. Always use freshly voided urine for testing. Stale urine will not
provide accurate results. Do not use urine that has been standing in a urinary drainage
(2) Double Void. For complete accuracy, the "double void" method should
be used when testing urine. Instruct the patient to empty his bladder, wait 15-30
minutes, and void again. Test the urine from the second voiding.
(3) Clinitest tablets. Place 10 drops of water into a test tube. Add 5 drops
of fresh urine. Drop in one of the clinitest tablets. Wait 15 seconds and compare the
color of the solution in the test tube to the appropriate color chart (enclosed in the kit) to
determine the concentration of sugar present.
(a) This chemical reaction is heat producing. Always use a test tube
rack to hold the tube. Never hold it in your hand.
Document the test results in the patient's record.
(4) Acetest tablets. Place one drop of fresh urine onto an acetest tablet. If
the tablet turns purple, the test is positive for the presence of acetone. Document the
test results in the patient's record.
(5) Ketodiasti x. Test strips measure glucose and acetone at the same time.
Dip one ketodiastix quickly in the fresh urine. Time the readings according to the
instructions provided and use the color chart on the ketodiastix bottle to determine the
presence of acetone and the concentration of glucose. Document the results in the
a. Since diabetes is a disorder of the body's metabolism, the diabetic must
maintain a carefully balanced routine of diet, exercise, and medication (insulin or oral
hypoglycemic agents). Diet is the most important factor in the control of diabetes.