(3) Note and document what the patient has eaten at each meal. Failure to
consume the full meal provided will result in a metabolic imbalance that could lead to a
(4) Do not permit the patient to eat anything other than his prescribed diet.
Extra, unauthorized food may precipitate a hypoglycemic reaction.
1-69. ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS
a. Oral hypoglycemics act by stimulating the pancreatic beta cells to produce
more insulin or by increasing the effectiveness of existing insulin.
b. Oral hypoglycemics are NOT a form of oral insulin. Oral hypoglycemic agents
require a pancreas with functional beta cells. This is why oral hypoglycemics do not
work for all patients with diabetes.
c. Oral hypoglycemics act within an hour after ingestion and last for 24 hours.
d. Examples of oral hypoglycemic agents include Orinase, Diabinese, and
a. When insulin is present within the blood, glucose is able to pass through the
capillary membrane and into the body's cells to be utilized for energy.
b. Insulin is measured in units. The most common strength of insulin is "U-100."
This means that 1 ml of the solution contains 100 units of insulin. U-100 syringes (fig.
1-8) are designed specifically for the administration of U-100 insulin. Use of other
syringes, not calibrated in units, is a dangerous practice that allows for medication error.
c. Insulin is routinely refrigerated to prolong shelf life, but should be at room
temperature when administered to prevent irritation of skin tissue.
d. Insulin is classified according to its action.
Rapid-acting insulin includes regular and semilente.
(a) Onset of action occurs 1/2 to 1 hour after administration.