d. Uterosacral Ligaments. These are a posterior continuation of the peritoneal
tissue, which forms the cardinal ligaments. The ligaments pass posteriorly to the
sacrum on either side of the rectum.
This is a tubelike organ for copulation and the excretory duct for the products of
menstruation. It is directed downward and forward, situated in front of the rectum and
behind the bladder. The upper part of the vagina lies above the pelvic floor and is
surrounded by visceral pelvic fascia. The lower half is surrounded by the levator ani
a. The projection of the cervix into the vaginal vault divides the vault into four
regions which are called fornices (anterior and posterior, right and left lateral).
b. The posterior fornix is in close contact with the peritoneum of the pouch of
Douglas. The rectovaginal septum lies between the vagina and rectum. The dense
connective tissue separating the anterior wall of the vagina from the distal urethra is
called the urethrovaginal septum.
2-10. FEMALE EXTERNAL GENITAL ORGANS (VULVA)
a. The external organs are referred to collectively as the vulva. The vulva is
comprised of the paired labia majora, the paired labia minora, the clitoris and the
vestibule. The vulva occupies the central portion of the perineal region. The mons
veneris, urethra, and Skene's glands are in close proximity to the vulva.
b. The mons pubis (veneris) is a rounded elevation of tissue covered by skin
and, after puberty, by hair. It is situated in front of the symphysis pubis.
c. The labia majora are two folds of skin that extend downward and backward.
They unite below and behind to form the posterior commissure and in front to form the
anterior commissure. They form the lateral boundaries of the vulva. A Bartholin gland
is situated in each of the labium majus.
d. The labia minora are the two delicate folds of skin that lie within the labia
majors. Anteriorly each labium minus splits into lateral and medial parts. The lateral
part forms the prepuce of clitoris, and the medial part forms the frenulum. The posterior
folds of the labia are united by a delicate fold extending between them. This forms the
e. The clitoris is the homologue of the penis in the male. It hangs free and
terminates in a rounded glans (small sensitive vascular body). Unlike the penis, the
clitoris is not traversed by the urethra.