together with contraction of the smooth muscle fibers of the tube and that the peristaltic
movements of the tube push the ova toward the uterus.
c. The right tube and ovary are in close relationship to the cecum and appendix,
and the left tube and ovary are associated with the sigmoid flexure of the colon. Both
are closely associated with the ureters.
a. Each ovary, situated at the side of the uterus, lies within a depression
(ovarian fossa) on the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity on the posterior surface of the
broad ligament. The ovary is attached to the posterior surface of the broad ligament by
the mesovarium and is kept in place by the ovarian ligament. The ovary, a small,
flattened, almond-shaped organ, is composed of an outer layer, known as the cortex,
and an inner vascular layer, known as the medulla. The cortex contains ovarian
(graafian) follicles in different stages of maturity. After ovulation, the corpus luteum is
developed within the ovary by reorganization of the graafian follicles. The medulla, lying
within the cortex, consists of connective tissue containing nerves, blood, and lymph
vessels. The ovary is covered by epithelium, not by peritoneum.
b. The ovaries are homologous with the testes of the male. They produce ova
after puberty and also function as endocrine glands, producing hormones. The
estrogenic hormone is secreted by the ovarian follicle. It controls the development of
the secondary sexual characteristics and initiates growth of the lining of the uterus
during the menstrual cycle. The progesterone hormone, which is secreted by the
corpus luteum, is essential for the implantation of the fertilized ovum and for the
development of the embryo.
THE LIGAMENTS OF THE UTERUS
a. Broad Ligaments. From each side of the uterus, the pelvic peritoneum
extends laterally, downward, and backward. A double fold of pelvic peritoneum forms
the layers of the broad ligament, enclosing the uterus. These layers separate to cover
the floor and sides of the pelvis. The uterine tube is situated within the free upper
border of broad ligament. The part of the broad ligament lying immediately below the
uterine tube is termed the mesosalpinx. The ovary lies behind the broad ligament.
b. Round Ligaments. These fibromuscular bands are attached to the uterus.
Each round ligament passes forward and laterally between the layers of the broad
ligament to enter the deep inguinal ring.
c. Transverse Cervical Ligaments. These cardinal ligaments are composed of
connective tissue masses with smooth muscle fibers that are strong support for the
uterus in the pelvis.