c. Treatment of Renal Calculi. Treatment usually consists of measures to
cause renal calculi to pass through and out of the system naturally since 90 percent of
these stones are five millimeters in diameter. Additional treatment includes the
Hydration - encourage the patient to drink plenty of fluids.
Pain control - give meperidine (Demerol) or morphine.
DO NOT give antispasmodics.
Bedrest and supportive treatment.
If the calculi are too large to pass through the system naturally, it may be
necessary to remove then surgically.
(5) Dietary information - a patient should be taught and urged to follow a
diet which will prevent the formation of renal calculi in the future.
Section III. MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY DISEASES
a. General Information.
(1) Properly functioning kidneys are vital to life. Remember the main
functions of the kidneys: maintenance of electrolyte and water balance and excretion of
waste products. If the kidneys do not function properly, waste products (such as excess
minerals, urea, toxins, and drugs) start to accumulate in the body. These waste
products must be removed for the person to continue to live. Dialysis is a technique
used to remove waste products from the blood and excess fluids from the body when
the kidneys are not functioning normally.
(2) Dialysis is the diffusion of dissolved molecules through a semipermeable
membrane. These molecules tend to pass from an area of greater concentration to an
area of less concentration. In patients who have defective kidney function, the
accumulation of urea and other nitrogen waste products can be reduced by passing the
patient's blood through a dialysis machine. Thus, dialysis removes waste products from
the bloodstream and restores the patient's electrolyte balance. Dialysis cannot cure
renal failure, but dialysis can accomplish some of the renal functions so that the patient
continues to live. A patient on dialysis uses either a machine with a semipermeable
filtering membrane, or his own peritoneal membrane to cleanse his blood.