Pooling of fluid in ascites or burns.
(g) Cardiovascular disorders such as congestive heart failure and
(2) Intrinsic (parenchymal) renal failure. This type of renal failure is caused
by damage to the kidneys themselves, the damage usually resulting from acute tubular
necrosis. Possible causes of such damage include:
(a) Sickle-cell disease.
(b) Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
(d) Ischemia (lack of blood in the kidneys).
(3) Postrenal failure. Obstruction of urinary flow bilaterally causes this type
of renal failure. Possible causes of obstruction include:
(b) Blood clots.
Papillae from papillary necrosis.
(e) Urethral edema from catheterization.
b. Signs and Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure. Early signs of renal failure
become more severe if the kidneys do not begin functioning again. The renal failure
soon disrupts other body systems. Note the signs and symptoms in the following body
(1) Gastrointestinal system. - Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or
constipation, stomatitis, bleeding, hematemesis, dry mucous members, uremic breath.
(2) Central nervous system. - Headache, drowsiness, irritability, confusion,
peripheral neuropathy, convulsions, coma.
(3) Integumentary system. The cutaneous skin layer has these
characteristics: dryness, pruritus, pallor, purpura, and, rarely, uremic frost.