(4) Cardiovascular system. An early symptom is hypotension. Later, these
signs and symptoms occur: hypertension, dysrhythmias, fluid overload, congestive heart
failure, systemic edema, and anemia.
(5) Respiratory system.--Deep or rapid respirations caused by metabolic
acidosis and, occasionally, pulmonary edema.
c. Most Commonly Seen Signs and Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure. As
a 91W30, you are most likely to see these signs and symptoms of renal failure:
Mental disturbances such as confusion, lethargy, and stupor.
Less than 30 cc an hour urine output despite replacement.
Respiratory conditions such as respiratory muscle paralysis.
Cardiac problems such as tachycardia and dysrhythmias.
Fever and chills.
d. Treatment of Acute Renal Failure. Treatment for acute renal failure in the
Intensive Care Unit consists of the following:
Initiate an IV of 0.9 percent normal saline.
Check urinary output hourly.
Restrict 24-hour fluid intake.
(5) Possible hemodialysis (removal of waste materials/poisons from the
blood by means of a hemodialyzer, a piece of equipment commonly called an artificial
3-10. CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE
Chronic renal failure, usually the end result of a gradually progressive loss of
renal function, is caused by the gradual loss of nephrons. As more and more nephrons
are destroyed, the kidneys gradually lose the ability to perform their normal functions.
Without treatment, uremic toxins can accumulate and cause potentially fatal physiologic
changes in all the major organ systems of the body.