a. Etiology of Chronic Renal Failure. The causes of chronic renal failure
Chronic glomerular disease such as glomerulonephritis.
Chronic infections such as tuberculosis.
Vascular diseases such as hypertension.
Obstructive processes such as calculi.
Collagen diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.
Endocrine diseases such as diabetic neuropathy.
b. Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Renal Failure. Characteristic signs and
symptoms of chronic renal failure include:
(1) Dehydration - excessive loss of body fluid. Dehydration may occur early
in renal failure when the kidneys cannot concentrate the urine and large amounts of
water are eliminated.
(2) Edema - accumulation of fluid in the tissue spaces. This condition may
occur late in chronic renal diseases when the kidneys cannot eliminate water in
(3) Hypertension - high arterial blood pressure. Hypertension may occur as
the result of fluid overload and the increased production of renin.
(4) Anemia - below normal concentration of hemoglobin in the blood for the
patient's age and sex. This condition occurs when the kidneys cannot produce the
hormone to activate the production of red bone marrow cells.
(5) Uremia - if levels of nitrogen waste products in the blood are very high,
urea can be changed into ammonia in the stomach and intestine, causing ulcerations