(4) Ordinarily, the patient is given a minute quantity of the contrast medium
(orally, ophthalmically, subcutaneously, or intravenously) to determine sensitivity.
(5) A K.U.B. (kidneys, ureters, bladder) film should be made before the
injection of the contrast medium. This film should be processed immediately and given
to the radiologist or other responsible medical authority for examination. It will show
whether or not the gastrointestinal tract has been properly cleared and demonstrate the
presence of any calculi or any outstanding pathology. It also serves as a means of
checking for correctness of technique factors and accuracy of positioning.
(6) After preliminary testing, a sterile aqueous contrast solution containing
from 35 to 50 percent iodine compound (for example, Conray, Renografin, or Hypaque)
is injected slowly into one of the antecubital veins at the elbow. THE INJECTION IS
ALWAYS GIVEN BY THE RADIOLOGIST OR ANOTHER PHYSICIAN.
Non-ionic contrasts are the media of choice, resulting in fewer severe
(1) In general, the positioning of the patient (figure 2-27) and the technique
factors are the same as for the routine K.U.B. procedure.
(2) Films are exposed at specified intervals. Exposure time should as short
as practicable to minimize motion and increase detail. Unless otherwise specified,
exposure is made upon suspension of respiration at the end of exhalation. Exposures
are made according to clinical routine. The following sequence is an example:
1st film: 05 minutes after injection.
2nd film: 10 minutes after injection.
3rd film: 10 minutes after injection.
4th film: 20 minutes after injection.
At least one film (normally, the last) is made with the patient in the upright
position. For upright projections, the normal exposure should be increased.
(3) In addition to the above film, it is sometimes necessary to take one or
more of the following:
Posterior obliques right and/or left.
Laterals right and/or left.