(d) Pain on urination.
If the obstruction is only on one side, the pain may be just on one side. That
pain will probably be in the flank area.
c. Treatment of Hydronephrosis. The two main goals of treatment are to
preserve renal function and prevent infection. Both goals can be achieved by surgical
removal of the obstruction. If the surgery is performed within a few weeks, before the
kidney is damaged, the patient may recover completely. If the obstruction is not
removed, the kidney may be permanently damaged.
ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
Acute renal failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly fail to function. As a chief
organ of the excretory system, the kidney is important in the elimination of some soluble
waste products from the body, and the regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the
body. Renal failure stops these all-important functions, and disrupts the fine balance of
the body's systems. Medical treatment can usually reverse this problem. If medication
is unsuccessful, the condition may progress to end-stage renal disease, uremic
syndrome, and death.
Uremic syndrome is a condition that may appear in a patient who is in the late
stages of renal failure. The skin also serves as an excretory organ. When
the failed kidneys cannot excrete waste products, the skin excretes these
products. This skin excretion causes a white film to form on the skin.
a. Etiology of Acute Renal Failure. Three classifications of acute renal failure
are prerenal failure, intrinsic (or parenchymal) failure, and postrenal failure.
(1) Prerenal failure. Diminished blood flow to the kidneys causes this type
of renal failure. The reason for the decreased blood flow may be any of the following:
(d) Blood loss.